I.E., ETC., et al AND E.G. –Comparison, Difference



i.e.

- that is (stands for id est from Latin). You can also use it to substitute, “in other words.”

etc.

- and so on, and the rest (abbreviation for etcetera).

e.g.

- for instance, for example (abbreviation for exempli gratia in Latin). Remember e.g. by thinking of it as “example given” and then follow it with a few examples. e.g. apples, oranges, bananas.


 Consider these two sentences:
A balanced diet should include fruits: apples, oranges, etc.
The fruit basket contained some of Bob's favorite fruits, for example, apples, oranges, etc.
In the first example, you can logically continue the list of examples by substituting any type of fruit. But in the second, you can't. You have no way to know what other types of fruits Bob likes to eat, nor what was in the fruit basket.

et al  

means roughly “and others”. It is written at the end of a list of names to indicate that others are related to the same subject. In legal terms, it probalby means that the one who signs is not the only responsible for whatever he’s signing, but there are others with the same/related responsibility.“The investigation was carried out by Estell Lynch, James K, John Doe et al.” means John Doe and some others (could be partners, collaborators, relatives, heirs, etc.). 

Rule #1: 
Don’t use "e.g." and "etc." together because you wouldn't use for instance (meaning as an example) and then use and so on (meaning others); 
both phrases imply the names you named were just a part of a group. For example, “e.g. apple, oranges, etc.”

Technically, you can probably use “i.e. apples, oranges, etc.” since it’s says “that is,
apples, oranges, and so on.” 


Rule#2
Use periods as they’re abbreviations. Easier workaround: instead of using the abbreviation, use “for example” or “that is” and you can rarely do wrong. Since et means and, avoid using and with "etc." ect is not the same thing.

Rule#3
Don’t use "such as" and "etc." together