40 classical romantic sentences In English


1. No matter the ending is perfect or not, you cannot disappear from my world. 2. Love is a carefully designed lie. 

3. Promises are often like the butterfly, which disappear after beautiful hover. 

4. Fading is true while flowering is past 

5. Why I have never catched the happiness? Whenever I want you ,I will be accompanyed by the memory of... 

6.  Love ,promised between the fingers Finger rift,twisted in the love 

7. If you weeped for the missing sunset,you would miss all the shining stars 

8. to feel the flame of dreaming and to feel the moment of dancing,when all the romance is far away,the eternity is always there 

9. If we can only encounter each other rather than stay with each other,then I wish we had never encountered . 

10. I would like weeping with the smile rather than repenting with the cry,when my heart is broken ,is it needed to fix? 

11. There are no trails of the wings in the sky, while the birds has flied away. 

12. When keeping the ambiguity with you ,I fear I will fall in love with you, and I fear I will cry after your leaving. 

13. When alive ,we may probably offend some people.However, we must think about whether they are deserved offended. 

14. I am looking for the missing glass-shoes who has picked it up 

15. You will have it if it belongs to you,whereas you don't kveth for it if it doesn't appear in your life

16. No one indebted for others,while many people don't know how to cherish others. 

17. Eternity is not a distance but a decision. 

18. Dreaming in the memory is not as good as waiting for the paradise in the hell 

19. Where there is great love, there are always miracles. 

20. Love is like a butterfly. It goes where it pleases and it pleases where it goes. 

21. If I had a single flower for every time I think about you, I could walk forever in my garden. 

22. Within you I lose myself, without you I find myself wanting to be lost again. 

23. At the touch of love everyone becomes a poet. 

24.Look into my eyes - you will see what you mean to me. 

25.Distance makes the hearts grow fonder. 

26.I need him like I need the air to breathe. 

27.If equal affection cannot be, let the more loving be me. 

28.Love is a vine that grows into our hearts. 

29.If I know what love is, it is because of you. 

30.Love is the greatest refreshment in life. 

31.Love never dies. 

32.The darkness is no darkness with thee. 

33.We cease loving ourselves if no one loves us. 

34.There is no remedy for love but to love more. 

35.When love is not madness, it is not love. 

36.A heart that loves is always young. 

37.Love is blind. 

38.Love is like the moon, when it does not increase, it decreases. 

39.The soul cannot live without love. 

40.Brief is life, but love is long. 

Writing: how to describe trends in a line graph--(1)


In academic writing, we often need to describe a trend of data for example in a line graph. And this is also a kind of writing required in IELTS.

Usually, we can use verbs to depict changes and adverbs to show the degree of changes. Taking the following graph (the price of  rice)for example. 

 We can say 'the price fluctuated wildly' for a, 'the price declined slightly' for b, and ' the price increased gradually' for c.
I conclude the common-used word as follows:

   verb:  upward trend: increase, rise, soar, shoot up, climb, go up
            downward trend : fall, decrease, decline, plunge, drop, down over
            others: level off /at, fluctuate, experience(v)
 adverb: slow: slowly, slightly, mildly, gradually, marginally, steadily
              fast: dramatically, drastically, wildly, sharply, suddenly, remarkably, significantly, noticeably   
              


Ability, Motivation and Attitude.

Ability is what you’re capable of doing. 

Motivation determines what you do. 

Attitude determines how well you do it.”


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Is work a singular or plural word?

We are often confused by the common-used word 'work' whether it is singular or plural, especially in written English.

Well, in many occasions it is a uncountable word.For example,when it means as  

      (1) the job that a person does especially in order to earn money: He started work as a security guard.
      (2) the duties that you have and the activities that you do as part of your job: The accountant described his work to the sales staff.
      (3) tasks that need to be done: Taking care of a baby is hard work.
      (4) materials needed or used for doing work, especially books, papers, etc: His work was spread all over the floor.
      (5) the place where you do your job: I have to leave work early today.
      (6) the use of physical strength or mental power in order to do or make something: We started work on the project in 2009.
      (7) a thing or things that are produced as a result of work: Is this all your own work 
      (8) the result of an action; what is done by somebody:The damage is clearly the work of vandals.

However, when it means as follows, work can be used as a countable word.

      (1) a book, piece of music, painting, etc: Beethoven's piano works
      (2) (often in compoundsactivities involving building or repairing something: They expanded the shipyards and started engineering works.
      (3) (often in compoundsa place where things are made or industrial processes take place: Raw materials were carried to the works by barge./ a brickworks

Verb Tenses in Academic Writing



Verb Tenses in Academic Writing

By the Walden University Writing Center Staff

Common Verb Tenses

Verb tenses place actions in time, expressing whether the actions already took place (past), are currently taking place (present), or will be taking place (future). In scholarly writing, the most common verb tenses we use are the following:

Use the simple present to describe a general truth, an action that is happening now, or an action that occurs on a regular basis:

This study addresses the shortage of research about gifted students.
Skinner’s theories remain valid today.

Use the simple past tense to describe an action that took place at a specific point in the past:

The instructor discovered that her students retained information better when they were given more autonomy.
 Zimbardo (1998) researched many aspects of social psychology.

Use the future tense to describe an action that will take place at a particular point in the future:

Tomorrow, I will distribute the surveys to my students.
 Many students will attend the residency next June.

Use the present perfect tense (have + verb)  to describe an action that began in the past and continues in the present:

Researchers have shown that the corpus callosum is more developed in cats than in dogs. (Notice that the implication here is that the research showed this in the past and continues to show this presently).
Psychoneuroimmunologists have demonstrated the influence of stress on chronic illnesses.

Use the past perfect tense (had + verb) to describe an action that began in the past and continued for some time but is no longer happening.

Before Freud’s discovery, psychologists had believed that hysteria was caused by a wandering womb.
Since she had developed her critical thinking skills, Mary performed well on the test.

Use the future perfect tense (will have + verb)  to describe an action that is presently taking place and will continue taking place until some point in the future.

I will have revised this thesis 50 times by the end of the semester.
I will have been at Walden University for 2 years by the time I complete the thesis.

Verb Tense Consistency

Within a sentence, verb tenses need to be consistent, and they must reflect a logical progression of events or actions. Within a paragraph, moreover, the sequence of tenses from sentence to sentence has to make sense. Consider the following examples, and note how the two parts of each sentence (main clause and subordinate clause in these cases) must relate logically through proper use of verb tenses:

Incorrect: When Smith tried to contact the interviewees for a follow up, some of them moved.  (This sentence wrongly implies that the contact attempt caused the moving).
Correct: When Smith tried to contact the interviewees for a follow up, some of them had moved. (This sentence makes it clear that the moves had already happened prior to the contact attempt).

Incorrect: Because 80% of the women dropped out of the study, the research had been stopped.  (Verb tense errors here create an illogical cause-effect reversal).
Correct: Because 80% of the women dropped out of the study, the research had to be stopped. (The cause-effect here is clear and logical).

For ensuring clarity and smoothness of expression, then, accuracy and consistency in our use of verb tenses is a must. Abrupt changes in verb tense or use of the wrong verb tense can confuse the reader by creating ambiguities about the progress of actions in time.

APA and Verb Tenses

In addition to calling for consistency and accuracy, APA formatting calls for the use of specific verb tenses for paraphrasing and analyzing research that is incorporated into an essay’s argument. Generally speaking, research results need to be described in the past tense because the research took place at a particular moment in the past:

The participants in the experimental group reported that their depression had decreased significantly (Thompson, 2003). In addition, 68 of those participants reported nausea (Thompson, 2003).

On the other hand, literature review data may be discussed in the present perfect tense because the results of the past research may still be pertinent today:

While some researchers have argued that stress does not affect immunity, others have shown a direct causal connection between exposure to stress and lowered white blood cell count.

Lastly, the implications of research results may be described in the present tense if those implications are meaningful in the present:

The results of Jones’s study (2003) suggest that adult learners prefer collaborative activities.

The Conditional Verb Tenses

You’ve now learned about the standard verb tense: the present tense (what is going on now); the past tense (what happened at specific times in the past); the future tense (what will happen); the present perfect tense (what started in the past and is still going on today); and the past perfect tense (what happened in the past but not at a specific time).

But what if your actions depend on a condition? What do you do when you need to convey something you could do, would do, could have done, would have done, or would never do again?
When expressing something that has not actually happened or that could or might happen in the future, you will have two main clauses. The first clause is called the condition clause and almost always begins with the words if, were, or had (if I had; were they there; had she known). The second clause, called the result clause, will contain the words could, would, or will to form the conditional tense.

Some Walden assignments ask you to describe what you would do in a certain situation. For example, you might be asked to describe an ethical standard, the violation of which you think would have serious implications for or effect on a client or patient.

In your response, you’ll be speaking hypothetically. The most common hypothetical statements use an interesting combination of the present and past tense:

If I violated ethical standard A.2 from the Ethical Standards for School Counselors (American School Counselor Association, 2008), I would risk the confidentiality of the students in my school.

Hypothetical statements can also combine the present and the future tense (use this format when you are predicting something about the future):

If I violate ethical standard A.2 from the Ethical Standards for School Counselors (American School Counselor Association, 2008), I will risk the confidentiality of the students in my school.

In addition, hypothetical situations can describe imagined or unreal events in the past. For these situations, use a combination of the perfect and conditional tenses:

If I had violated ethical standard A.2 from the Ethical Standards for School Counselors (American School Counselor Association, 2008), I would have risked the confidentiality of the students in my school.

Expressing a present unreal event is also known as the subjunctive mood:

If I were violating ethical standard A.2 from the Ethical Standards for School Counselors (American School Counselor Association, 2008), I would be risking the confidentiality of the students in my school.


A few notes about the conditional:

Wishing something is always an unreal condition (I wish I had not violated standard A.2).
The verb to be uses the form were in an unreal condition (If I were a better counselor, I would…).
In order to express the unreal, the hypothetical, the speculative, or the imagined, you will move one step back in time in your condition clause (see chart below).

Verb Tense Progression Chart

Simple Present They discuss
Present Perfect They have discussed
Simple Past They discussed
Past Perfect They had discussed
Future They will discuss
Future Perfect They will have discussed
Present hypothetical If they discussed…, they would know…
If they had discussed…, they would have known…
(go back to the past to discuss the present)
Future prediction If they discuss…, they will know…
(go back to the present to discuss the future)
Subjunctive If they were discussing…, they would know…
If they had been discussing, they would have known
(go back to the present to discuss the future)



Past tense -- past perfect progressive (4)



Forms:  I had been working.

The past perfect progressive is used to talk about actions or situations which had continued up to the past moment that we are thinking about, or shortly before it. 
   When I found Jane, I could see that she had been crying.

Compare progressive and simple

            progressive                                                                       simple
more temporary actions and situations                  longer-lasting or permanent situations          

emphasise the continuation of an activity              emphasise the idea of completion

some verbs are not normally used in
 progressive forms

Past tense -- past perfect (3)



Forms:  It had rained for weeks.

The basic meaning of the past perfect is 'earlier past': something had already happened at the time we are talking about. 
  During our conversation, I realised that we had met before.

The past perfect is common after past verbs of saying and thinking, to talk about things that had happened before the saying or thinking took place.
  I told her that I had finished.

Past perfect or simple past : we use a past perfect, not a simple past, to say how long something had continued up to a past moment.  A simple past perfect is used with 'non-progressive verbs' like be, have and know. With most other verbs, we use the past perfect progressvie for this meaning.
  When they got married, the had known each other for 8 years.

Past tense -- past progressive (2)



Forms:I was studing English.

We use the past progressive to say that something was in progress around a particular past time.
   What were you doing at eight o'clock yesterday evening? I was studing English.(Not What did you do…?~ I studied English.)

The past progressive is used for temporary actions and situations. When we talk about longer, more permanent situations we use the simple past.
    It happened while I was living in Canada last year.
    I lived in Canada for ten years while I was a child.

Compare with simple past :  we often use the past progressive together with a simple past tense. The past progressive refers to a longer 'background' action or situationl the simple past refers to a shorter action or event that happened in  the middle of the longer action, or that interrupted it.
   As I was walking down the road, I saw Jane.
   Mozart died while he was composing the Requiem.

Because we often use the past progressive to talk about something that is a 'background', not the main 'news', we can make something seem less important by using this tense.
   I had lunch with the President yesterday. (important piece of news)
   I was having lunch with the President yesterday, and she said …(as if there was nothing special for the speaker about lunching with the President) 

Past tense -- simple past (1)

Forms: I studied English.

We use the simple past for many kinds of past events: short, quickly finished actions and happenings, longer stituations, and repeated events.
     I spent all my childhood in China.

The simple past is common in stories and descriptions of past events.
     One day the Princess decided that she didn't like staying at home all day, so she told her father that she wanted to get a job …

The simple past is often used with words referring to finished times.
     I saw Jane yesterday morning.

In general, the simple past tense is the 'normal' one for talking about the past; we use it if we do not have a special reason for using one of the other tenses.

no more, not any more, no longer, not any longer

no more + nouns to talk about quantity or degree -- to say how much.
    There's no more bread

no longer, not… any longer and not…any more are used adverb to express the idea of actions and situations stopping. 
    I'm not helping you any more.

Anymore may be written as one word, especially in American English.
    Annie doesn't live here anymore.

Do you confuse with If-clause (2)-- spcial structures

We use special structures with if when we are talking about unreal situations--things that will probably not happen, situations that are untrue or imaginary, and similar ideas. In these cases, we use past tenses and would to 'distance' our language from reality.

1. if + past; would + infinitive without to
    To talk about unreal or improbable situations now or in the future, we use a past tense in the if-clause, and would+infinitive in the other part of the sentence.
     If I knew the reason, I would tell you.( Not if I know)



2. if+past perfect; would have+past participle
    This structure means past situations that did not happen.
     If he'd run a bit fast, he could have won.

3. the difference between ordinary tense-use and special tense-use 
     Take if I come and if I came for example, the difference is not necessarily a difference of time. They can both refer to the future. But the past tense suggests that a future situation is impossible, imaginary or less probable.
      If I become President, I'll…(said by a candidate in an election)
      If I became President, I'd…(said by a schoolboy) 

4. if I were
     Usually, we use were instead of was after if.

5. could and might
     could: would be able to
     might: would perhaps or would possibly

How To Think Logically

Original URI: http://www.trinitysem.edu/Student/LessonInstruction/ThinkLogically.html

Base your writing on logical thinking. Learn to use inductive and deductive reasoning in your writing. Avoid common fallacies.

INDUCTIVE REASONING:
When you reason inductively, you begin with a number of instances (facts or observations) and use them to draw a general conclusion. Whenever you interpret evidence, you reason inductively. The use of probability to form a generalization is called an inductive leap. Inductive arguments, rather than producing certainty, are thus intended to produce probable and believable conclusions. As your evidence mounts, your reader draws the conclusion that you intend. You must make sure that the amount of evidence is sufficient and not based on exceptional or biased sampling. Be sure that you have not ignored information that invalidates your conclusion (called the “neglected aspect”) or presented only evidence that supports a predetermined conclusion (known as “slanting”).

DEDUCTIVE REASONING:
When you reason deductively, you begin with generalizations (premises) and apply them to a specific instance to draw a conclusion about that instance. Deductive reasoning often utilizes the syllogism, a line of thought consisting of a major premise, a minor premise and a conclusion; for example, All men are foolish (major premise); Smith is a man (minor premise); therefore, Smith is foolish (conclusion). Of course, your reader must accept the ideas or values that you choose as premises in order to accept the conclusion. Sometimes premises are not stated. A syllogism with an unstated major or minor premise, or even an unstated conclusion, needs to be examined with care because the omitted statement may contain an inaccurate generalization.

THE TOULMIN METHOD:
Another way of viewing the process of logical thinking is through the Toulmin method. This model is less constrained than the syllogism and makes allowances for the important elements of probability, backing, or proof for the premise and rebuttal of the reader’s objections. This approach sees arguments as the progression from accepted facts or evidence (data) to a conclusion (claim) by way of a statement (warrant) that establishes a reasonable relationship between the two. The warrant is often implied in arguments, and like the unstated premise in the syllogism, needs careful examination to be acceptable. The writer can allow for exceptions to a major premise. Qualifiers such as probably, possibly, doubtless, and surely show the degree of certainty of the conclusion; rebuttal terms such as unless allow the writer to anticipate objections.

FALLACIES:
A deductive argument must be both valid and true. A true argument is based on generally accepted, well-backed premises. Learn to distinguish between fact (based on verifiable data) and opinion (based on personal preferences). A valid argument follows a reasonable line of thinking.
Fallacies are faults in premises (truth) or in reasoning (validity). They may result from misusing or misrepresenting evidence, from relying on faulty premises or omitting a needed premise, or from distorting the issues. The following are some of the major forms of fallacies:

Non Sequitur:
A statement that does not follow logically from what has just been said; in other words, a conclusion that does not follow from the premises.

Hasty Generalization:
 A generalization based on too little evidence or on exceptional or biased evidence.

Ad Hominem:
Attacking the person who presents an issue rather than dealing logically with the issue itself.

Bandwagon:
An argument saying, in effect, “Everyone’s doing or saying or thinking this, so you should too.”

Red Herring:
Dodging the real issue by drawing attention to an irrelevant issue.

Either…Or:
Stating that only two alternatives exist when in fact there are more than two.

False Analogy:
The assumption that because two things are alike in some ways, they must be in other ways.

Equivocation:
An assertion that falsely relies on the use of a term in two different senses.

Slippery Slope:
The assumption that if one thing is allowed, it will be the first step in a downward spiral.

Oversimplification:
 A statement or argument that leaves out relevant considerations about an issue.

Begging the Question:
An assertion that restates the point just made. Such an assertion is circular in that it draws as a conclusion a point stated in the premise.

False Cause:
The assumption that because one event follows another, the first is the cause of the second. Sometimes called post hoc, ergo propter hoc (“after this, so because of this”).

Do you confuse with If-clause (1)


The clause after if, we usually talk about uncertain events and situations: things which may or may not happen/ be true. An if-clause oftern refers to a condition--something which must happen so that something else can happen.

There are three special structures named 'first', 'second' and 'third' conditionals.

First conditional         If + present                     will + infinitive
                                If we play tennis                      I’ll win
Second conditional If + past                              would + infinitive
                                 If we played tennis               I would win
Third conditional        If + past perfect                  would have + past participle
                                If we had played tennis                I would have won

However, if-clause also has ordinary structures.
    (1) The same tenses as with other conjunctions
          When we are not talking about 'unreal' situations, we use the same tenses with if as with other conjunctions. Present tenses are used to refer to the present, past tenses to the past.
          
          Oil floats if you pour it on water.
          If John didn't come to work yesterday, he was probably ill.
   
     (2) present tense with future meaning
          We normally use a present tense to talk about the future.
          I'll give him your love if I see her.

Except and except for (3)

1. except for is used before nouns/noun phrases

   The garden was empty except for one small bird.

2.except before prepositions and conjunctions
   He's good-looking except when he smiles.
   This room is no use except as a storeroom.

3. except (for) after all, any etc
   After generalising words like all, any, every, no, everything, anybody, nowhere, nobody, whole, we often leave out for. But this does not happen before all, etc.
   Nobody came except(for) John and Mary.
   Except for John and Mary, Nobody came.(not Except John and Mary, Nobody came.) 

4. except(for) + object pronoun, not subject pronoun
   Everybody understood except(for) me.(not …for I)

5. except + verb
   A common structure is do…except +infinitive without to.
      He does nothing except eat all day.
 
   In other cases an -ing form is usually necessary.
      You needn't worry about anything except having a great time.
   

Beside and besides (2)


Beside is a preposition meaning ' at the side of', 'by', 'next to'.
     What's that beside that window?

Besides can be used like as well as, when we add new information to what is already known.
     Besides vegetable, we have meat and seafood.

Besides can also be used as a discourse marker meaning 'also', 'as well', 'in any case'. It is often used to add a stronger, more conclusive argument to what has gone before.(Usually used at the beginning of a clause)
     I don't like those shoes; besides, they're too expensive.

Except, besides and apart from, which one is right?(1)


We are often confused by these words or phrase. If we know the difference, then it's more easier to choose the right one.

Except usually subtracts: it is like saying without, or minus.
     I like all musical instruments except the violin.

Besides adds: it is like saying with, or plus.
     Besides the violin, she plays the piano and the flute.(sha plays three instruments)

Apart from can be used in both senses.
     Apart from the violin, she plays the piano and the flute.(= Besides the violin…)
     I like all musical instruments apart from the violin.(= except the violin)

There is only one case that these three words or phrase have the same meaning, when after no, nobody, nothing and similar negative words.
     He has nothing besides/except/ apart from his salary.(only has his salary)

Free Online - OXFORD Collocations Dictionary of English


Free Online - OXFORD Collocations Dictionary of English

What is collocation dictionary?

Collocation dictionary is a completely new type of dictionary that will help students and advanced learners effectively study, write and speak natural-sounding English. It is also very helpful for the education of the IELTS, TOEFL tests. Search FinanceStock as an example.
Level: Upper-Intermediate to Advanced
Key features of oxford dictionary online
  1. Collocations - common word combinations such as 'bright idea' or 'talk freely' - are the essential building blocks of natural-sounding English. The dictionary contains over 150,000 collocations for nearly 9,000 headwords.
  2. The dictionary shows all the words that are commonly used in combination with each headword: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and prepositions as well as common phrases.
  3. The dictionary is based on 100 million word British National Corpus. Internet searches were made to ensure most up-to-date usage for fast changing areas of language like computing.
  4. Over 50,000 examples show how the collocations are used in context, with grammar and register information where helpful. 
  5. The clear page layout groups collocations according to part of speech and meaning, and helps users pinpoint speedily the headword, sense and collocation they need.
  6. Usage notes show collocations shared by sets of words such as languages and seasons.
  7. It is an ideal companion volume to the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary.

How to use articles (3): a and an


A/an does not add much to the meaning of a noun. And we normally use a/an only with singular countable nouns.

1 one person or thing
   There is a car outside.

2 any one member of a class
   A teacher must like students.(=any doctor)

3 classifying and defining
   When we say what they are, what job they do, or what they are used for, we can use a/an to classify and define people and things.
    She's a teacher.
    A glider is a plane with no engine.

4 descriptions
   She's a nice girl.       That was a lovely evening.

5 when a/an cannot be left out
    We do not normally leave out a/an in negative expressions, after prepositions or after fractions.
      Lend me your knife. I haven't got a knife.(not I haven't got knife)
      You mustn't go without an umbrella.(not without umbrella)
      one third of a pound(not one third of pound)
    Also, do not leave out a/an when we say what jobs people have, or how things are used.
      He is a student. (not he is student)

6 the difference: a/an
   The choice between a and an depends on pronunciation, not spelling. An is used before a vowel sound, even if it is written as a consonant.
      an hour /En 'auEr/            an Mp /En em'Pi:/
      a university/E ju:nI'vE:sEti/    a one-pound coin / E 'wVn/
  Some people say an, not a, before words beginning with h if the first syllable is unstressd.
      an hotel (a hotel is more common)
      an historic occasion(a historic…is more common)




How to use articles (2): the


1 As mentioned in prior post, we use the before a noun when our reader and writer know which particular person, thing they are talking about.
I need the dress.(The listener knows which one)
I need a dress.(Any dress)

Here "the listener knows which one" usual means that (1) we have mentioned it before, (2) we say which one we mean, (3) it is clear from the situation which one we mean.
Examples are as follow:
 (1) He's got two kind of animals: a cat and a dog. The cat is black and the dog is brown. 
 (2) Who is the girl over there?
 (3) Andy is in the kitchen.

2 If there is only one, so the reader knows which one we mean. e.g. the sun, the moon

3 superlatives. This is because there is usually only one best, biggest etc. individual or group. So for the same reason, 'the' is used before next, last, first,same and only.

4 meaning 'the well-known'. After a name, an identifying expression with the is often used to make it clear that the person referred to is 'the well-known one'.
      She talk to Davie, the actor.

5 Do not use the with possessives and demonstratives.
      This is my daughter.(not the my daughter)
      Is that Ann's cat?(not the Ann's cat)
      I mean this dog.(not the this dog)

6 Usually do not use the with single proper nouns.
      Jeff lives in Toronto.(not The Jeff lives in the Toronto.)

7 Usually use no article to talk about things in general, 'the' does not mean 'all'.
       Books are expensive.(not The books are expensive.)

Also the pronunciation is slightly different several situations. 'The' is normally pronounced /Di:/before a vowel and /DE/before a consonant, which is dependent on its pronunciation other than spelling.

  the hour /Di: auE(r)/
  the MP/DI: em'pi:/
  the one-pound coin/DE wVn' paund 'kOIn/
  the university/DE' ju:nI'vEsEti/

Sometimes pronounce a stressed/Di:/ before a hesitation, or when we want to stress the following word, even if it begins with a consonant.
    He's the/Di:/- just a moment- deputy assistant vice-president.